BT402 - Microbial Biotechnology 

                                                  BT402 GDB SOLUTION
Question Title: Role of microbial biotechnology:

Efficient and sustainable microbial production through cell factory synthetic biology is a promising enabling technology in the transition from an economy based on fossil fuels towards an economy based on renewable biomass resources. The synthetic biology of fine and specialty chemicals is a bio manufacturing technology that, by 2020, is envisioned as providing cheaper economical, predictable and sustainable routes to an enlarged portfolio of novel, diverse, and previously expensive products in many sectors including cosmetics, flavors, polymers, and pharmaceuticals . A roadmap to commercialization of such products will need to both integrate and navigate the scientific and technological knowledge accumulated in patents into the biodesign process, so as to reduce transaction costs and lower the risk of failure as well as to maximize the innovation capabilities of the synthetic biology pipeline. One reported estimate suggests that by 2025 bio‐production will represent up to 28% of the global chemicals. Industrial bio‐production is nevertheless a complex process whose analysis requires multi‐scale approaches integrating cell, bioprocess, and ecosystem models with economic, innovation and policy considerations. Recent advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have led to an increase in the portfolio of both key building block chemicals and fine chemicals that can be microbially produced from biomass feedstock. Emerging computation platforms for synthetic biology  in combination with rapid DNA engineering and assembly techniques  are contributing to streamline metabolic pathway design and strain engineering. Synthetic biology techniques that insert standardized and characterized genetic parts are used to regulate and fine‐tuning the engineered biosynthetic pathways in the chassis. Nowadays, the establishment of synthetic biology bio‐foundries enables the application of automated design–build–test–learn cycles to microbial cell factories so that natural pathways can be refactored and novel
The challenge of sustainable chemical production, thus, needs to be addressed not only by considering the different temporal and spatial scales that are present in microbial production bioprocesses , but also by monitoring innovationto define multi‐objective goals compatible with a more rational use of biomass. Here, we perform a patent analysis of biosynthetic pathways for fine chemicals to explore the innovation landscape of metabolic design for microbial synthetic production.
Although multiple factors are involved in the successful commercialization of scientific and technological knowledge, the accumulation and analysis of intellectual property through patenting offers important signals as to targets that might subsequently have exploitable value in biotechnology and synthetic biology. Performing patent analyses in emerging technologies such as synthetic biology is challenging, as specific classifications are lacking or at best lagging in the international patent classification system.

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